What is PEMT?

PEMT stands for phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. That is quite a word! This gene encodes an enzyme which converts phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine by methylation in the liver. Methyltransferases control methylating capacity of the cell.  In...

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What is PON1?

Paraoxonases (PON1) are a family of enzymes involved in breaking down chemicals including several types of pesticides and pharmaceutical drugs. They are involved in protecting both high and low-density lipoproteins from oxidation, an important mechanism in...

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Understanding the Energy Cycle with Nutrigenomics

Below you can see how vitamins and minerals get depleted and why this zaps your body of energy. The Kreb’s Cycle is the process of converting food into energy and takes place in the mitochondria (powerhouse) of your cells. Fat and protein are the preferred energy...

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How Understanding Epigenetics Can Save Your Life

What is Epigenetics and Epigenomics? Epigenomics is the study of the complete set of epigenetic (chemical) modifications on the genome that can modify DNA instructions, turning on and off genes, or control the production of proteins. These modifications occur when...

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What is COL1A1?

COL1A1 produces alpha 1 chain of type I collagen, a major protein in tendons and ligaments. ACL ruptures are considered the most severe injury sustained in sports. According to this study, the gene encoding for the alpha1 chain of type I collagen (COL1A1) has been...

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What is FUT2?

Variants in the FUT2 gene (fucosyltransferase 2) may impact B12 absportion and the production of prebiotics, to support the colonization of probiotics. Genome-wide association studies have recently identified several common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in...

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What is CBS?

The Cystathione Beta-Synthase (CBS) enzyme pulls homocysteine to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and glutathione, requiring B6 and SAMe as a modulator. Interruptions in this process may be connected to digestive disorders, intolerance to sulfur rich food/high protein meals,...

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What is MTRR?

Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is a vital enzyme of homocysteine/methionine metabolic pathway and is required for the conversion of inactive form of methionine synthase (MTR) to its active form. MTRR helps recycle B12. The MTRR enzyme places a methyl group on...

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What is MTR?

MTR (methionine synthase) combines folate, methyl B12 and homocysteine into methionine. Variants in MTR are upregulations, so it tries to go faster. MTRR attaches a methyl group to B12, and variants here will slow the process. When both MTR and MTRR exist, dysfunction...

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What is COMT?

COMT (Catechol-O-Methyltransferase) breaks down estrogen, catecholamines and neurotransmitters including dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Heterozygous or homozygous variants for the COMT V158M methionine allele slow down the COMT enzyme, affecting estrogen...

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What is MAO-A?

MAO-A (Monoamine oxidase A) is a critical enzyme involved in breaking down important neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Males can only have a heterozygous MAO-A, while females can have heterozygous or homozygous variants. This requires...

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What is MTHFR A1298C?

MTHFR A1298C is involved in converting 5-methylfolate (5MTHF) to tetrahydrofolate (THF). The gene is compromised by about 70% in MTHFR A1298C (+/+) individuals, and about 30% in people with a heterozygous (+/-) mutation. Unlike MTHFR C677T, it is not linked to...

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What is MTHFR C677T?

Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase is labeled for both an enzyme and a gene. A healthy functioning MTHFR gene produces a functioning MTHFR enzyme that converts methyfolate to 5-MTHF and helps regulate homocysteine levels. If the MTHFR gene has certain variants the...

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Folate Cycle

Folate metabolism relies on multiple genes, including MTHFR, MTHFD1, FUT2, FOL, DHFR and SLC19A1. The diagram below helps you thoroughly researched and detailed study tool for understanding folate metabolism and requirements for your Nutrition Genome Report. Many...

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BH4, MAO-A, COMT and MTHFR 1298 Nutritional Biochemistry

In the Nutrition Genome Report, you may see a reference to the genes of MTHFR 1298 and BH4, VDR, thyroid hormones, MAO-A and serotonin/estrogen, COMT and estrogen, dopamine and adrenaline and the CYP liver enzymes. Below you can see how they are all related in shared...

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