ESR2 codes for estrogen receptor beta (ER-β), one of two main types of estrogen receptor is activated by estrogen. Upon binding to 17-β-estradiol,  the encoded protein interact with specific DNA sequences to activate transcription.

Phytoestrogens, ESR2, CYP1B1 and Prostate Health

ER-β is a potent tumor suppressor and plays a crucial role breast and prostate health.ESR2 has also been linked to elevated fibrinogen levels in post-menopausal women. The liver enzyme CYP1B1 polymorphism is an ultra-rapid metabolizer and metabolizes procarcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 17 beta-estradiol. CYP1B1 is highly expressed in certain cancers (breast, colon, lung, esophogus, skin, brain, lymph node, testes) but clinical implications have not been established. A combination of polymorphisms related to estrogen metabolism (CYP1B1, MAO-A, COMT, SHBG,) could help determine estrogen issues.

An overall decreased risk of prostate cancer for men with a high intake of phytoestrogens was strongly modified by a promoter SNP in the ERbeta gene (-13950 T/C). Carriers of the variant allele had an almost 60% lower risk of prostate cancer, compared to men with low phytoestrogen intake, whereas no such association was found among men with the common genotype.

HRT, Boron and ESR2

Polymorphisms may affect ER-β function and lead to altered responses in postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy. A study found that boron supplementation (3mg) markedly elevated the serum concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and testosterone in post-menopausal women; the elevation seemed more marked when dietary magnesium was low. This helped prevent mineral loss, and therefore bone loss.

Understanding Estrogen Metabolism

BH4 Cycle, COMT, MAO-A

 

Sources

  1. Applied Pharmacokinetics & Pharmacodynamics: Principles of Therapeutic Drug edited by Michael E. Burton.